Intern Home Institution Major(s) Project Mentor
Anthony Basilio California State University of Monterey Bay Biology

Title: Substrate preference and settlement timing of larval northern rock sole

Summary: Northern Rock Sole are a commercially important species that undergo a transition from a pelagic to benthic lifestyle. This settlement process occurs during the larval stage of the species. The behavioral cues that may control settlement are still unknown. We are examining whether there is a preferred substrate for settling larvae. We are also looking at relationships between development and timing of settlement in larvae.

Ben Laurel, Research Fishery Biologist, NOAA - Alaska Fisheries Science Center
Ashley Bulseco University of Hawaii at Hilo  Marine Science, Chemistry

Title: Assessing the Impacts of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) Egg Exposure to High pCO2 Seawater on Hatching Success and Subsequent Larval Development

Summary: The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) is both an economically and ecologically important species, and is vulnerable to upwelling events. The objective of my research is to determine if exposure of the oyster's eggs to high levels of pCO2 (characteristic of upwelling events) has a detrimental effect on subsequent larval development. Furthermore, it has been observed that high levels of pCO2 lead to lower hatching success. This research therefore aims to breakdown the egg development process, and to see at what phase the egg is most sensitive to environmental stress. This discovery may lend insight into the physiological processes during egg development that is most vulnerable to upwelling. Finally, water conditions of upwelling are characteristic of ocean acidification. By understanding the physiological responses of the Pacific oyster to periods of upwelling, we may have the ability to predict its performance in acidified ocean conditions as predicted for the near future.

Chris Langdon, Director, Molluscan Broodstock Program and Professor, Fisheries and Wildlife
Caity Clark Oregon State University Ecological Engineering Title: Seasonal variation in fish condition, gut condition, gut contents and meal type caloric density across 30, 40 and 50 meter depths of select age-group 0 flatfish species Sarah Henkel, Zoology
Elizabeth Duda Pomona College  Biology

Title: Assessing population-level variation in the mitochondrial genome of Euphausia superba to identify potential molecular markers

Summary: Antartctic krill (E. superba) is a commercially important zooplankton that is also vital to the marine ecosytem. Despite its importance, however, it remains significantly underrepresented in the genetic literature. This study aims to utilize newly available second-generation sequencing techniques to map out the mitochondrial genomes of up to twelve individuals of E. superba in order to create a more complete data set that can be used to better examine the intraspecific diversity of E. superba. Additionally this research should provide data that can be used in confirmation of existing Malacostraca phylogenies or the creation of potential new ones.

Michael Banks, Cooperative Institute for Marine Resources Studies; Mattias Johansson, CIMRS
Laura Filliger Carnegie Mellon University Biological Sciences

Title: Interannual variation and seasonal changes in black rockfish (Sebastes melanops) diets

Summary: This summer I analyzed and compared the interannual and seasonal changes in black rockfish diets off the coast of Newport, Oregon. The data collected from the 2011 season (during a La Niña influence) will be examined against the 2010 season (during an El Nino influence) to note the change in diets among the summer months due to variable ocean conditions. The timing of when different forage fish appear in the diets will also be studied to determine the change in trophic dynamics the phenology of prey switching between the years.

Rob Suryan, OSU/Hatfield Marine Science Center, 
Kaitlin Gallagher Harriet L. Wilkes Honors College of FAU Marine Biology

Title: Comparison of parasites in the native species Peamouth, Mylocheilus caurinus, and Three Spine Stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, to the introduced species Banded Killifish, Fundulus diaphanous

Summary: For my project I performed a total of ninety necropsies in order to compare the parasites of the native species Peamouth, Mylocheilus caurinus, and Three Spine Stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, to the invasive species Banded Killifish, Fundulus diaphanous. From the data I collected I calculated for parasite prevalence, intensity, and richness for each species so that I could determine whether the native or invasive species are faring better. I also examined the parasites in order to determine which intermediate hosts they used to enter the fish. By doing this I was able to determine if the introduced species was competing with the native species, which native the invasive was competing with more, and also how each of the three species utilized their niche.

Kym Jacobson, Biologist; NOAA – Northwest Fisheries Science Center
Kristen Gloeckler SUNY College of Environmental Science & Forestry  Aquatics and Fisheries

Title: Comparing chemistry and growth in Sebastes melanops and S. pinniger otoliths to past upwelling records

Summary: The relative concentrations of trace elements in an otolith will often reflect the relative concentrations of the trace elements in the environment where a fish lives. An interesting pattern has been seen in the ratio of Ba:Ca in the otoliths of black (Sebastes melanops) and canary rockfish (S. pinniger) in the NE Pacific Ocean where background concentrations are relatively constant with a few large peaks. We are interested in finding out what is causing these peaks and determining if they are related to growth. We hypothesize that the Ba:Ca peaks are an environmental signal that reflects the intensity of summer upwelling. Upwelling brings cold, deep water to the surface that is rich in nutrients and other elements such as barium. Somatic growth is highest in years with strong upwelling because nutrient rich waters fuel lower trophic level productivity. Therefore, if Ba:Ca peaks are related to upwelling, they should also be related to high growth. To determine whether chemistry, growth, and upwelling are related, we will apply the dendrochronology method of cross-dating to otoliths. This approach allows us to assign a calendar year to each otolith growth increment. We will be able to align these time series and determine if there is a coherent pattern in Ba:Ca concentrations and growth among individuals, and comparisons can be made to past records of upwelling intensity. If Ba:Ca peaks and vigorous growth can be used as indicators of upwelling based on modern data then archived otoliths of long-lived fishes could be used to reconstruct long-term histories of upwelling.

Bryan Black, Assistant Professor (Sr Res), OSU/Hatfield Marine Science Center, Jessica Miller, Assistant Professor, Coastal Oregon Marine Experiment Station, 
Astrid Leitner University of California Santa Cruz 

Marine Biology

Earth and Planetary Sciences

Title: Habitat Associations of Benthic Fishes in Astoria Canyon from Analysis of High-Resolution Video Transects

Summary: My project in Astoria Canyon is part of a larger effort to gather data on animal-habitat associations for many commercially important demersal fish species. Specifically, I am analyzing video footage gathered by the ROPOS ROV in Astoria Canyon, Oregon in 2001 during an expedition within the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration. With this analysis, I will look at the habitat associations of various species of groundfishes and run a community analysis based on the various substrate types found inside the canyon with the goal that my data will add to the baseline of available information on habitat associations of demersal fishes in deeper waters off the West Coast of the US.

Ric Brodeur/ Waldo Wakefield, Fisheries Research Biologist, NOAA NMFS NWFSC
Charlotte Stinson University of Tampa Marine Science-Biology

Title: The Effects of Ocean Acidification on the Growth Rate of Early Life Stage Walleye Pollock, T. chalcogramma

Summary: As atmospheric carbon dioxide levels continue to rise, more will dissolve within the surface waters of the ocean, altering the carbonate chemistry and pH. Ocean acidification is thought to negatively affect the calcifying rates of marine invertebrates, but little is known about how these changes will affect vertebrate species, especially at the earlier life stages. Walleye pollock is an important fish species both environmentally and commercially in the Northern Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. This study investigated how the growth rates of embryonic and juvenile walleye pollock may be influenced by ocean acidification. Fish were reared in tanks at 8∞C and treatment pHs of 8.05, 7.9, 7.6 and 7.2. Total length and mass measurements were taken bi-monthly to measure growth rate. Results from this study will help us better understand how walleye pollock and the Alaskan fisheries that depend on them may be affected by future ocean acidification levels.

Tom Hurst, Research Fishery Biologist, NOAA - Alaska Fisheries Science Center
Sara Thoma Simpson College

Biology

Chemistry

Title: The Energetics of Mud Shrimp and Their Introduced Blood Sucking Isopod Parasite

Summary: The eastern Pacific mud shrimp Upogebia pugettensis was an abundant infaunal species of estuaries and bays along the Pacific Northwest coast (PNC) of North America. These native shrimp occurred in dense beds on the intertidal mudflats of most estuaries, dominating the sedimentary and biogeochemical dynamics; however, their populations have declined dramatically since the late 1990s following the introduction of Orthione griffenis, a parasitic bopyrid isopod from Asia. Orthione is a branchial parasite that infests only shrimp of a reproductive size. It attaches itself within the gill chamber and feeds on hemolymph resulting in dramatic declines of host weight with size; however, correlations between individual Orthione and host weights are poor. I am examining the per gram effects of host size on Orthione weight change and parasite size on host growth. We measured the change in size, reproductive condition and weight of the parasite relative to the size, weight, sex, and condition of the host over time. This information is critical for discovering the processes limiting Orthione infestations to reproductive sized shrimp, females in particular, and the energetic burden the isopod has on the host in general.

John Chapman, OSU/ Brett Dumbauld, USDA
Allison Einoif  Macalester College  Physics

Title: Stratification and Currents in the channel of Yaquina Bay

Summary: Using current meter measurements, estuarine processes are examined in the channel of Yaquina Bay. Inquiries are made into the relationship between stratification in the water column and freshwater discharge in the estuary of Yaquina Bay. These estuarine processes affect currents in Yaquina Bay. Measurements of salinity and current velocity throughout the water column made with two conductivity, temperature, depth sensors (CTD) at the surface and base of the water column, as well as an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) at the bottom, are compared to the tidal record and freshwater discharge. As freshwater discharge increases, stratification becomes stronger in the channel. Periods of low and medium discharge show a relationship between spring-neap cycles and stratification, with spring tides producing weaker stratification while neap tides produce stronger stratification, and the relationship is reversed during the period of highest discharge. Within single tidal cycles during spring and neap cycles of each period of low, medium or high discharge, distinct patterns in along and cross-channel currents and stratification were found.

Jim Lerczak, Associate Professor, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences and Kipp Shearman, College of Oceanic & Atmospheric Sciences
Nicholas Elmer  Saint Lewis University  Meteorology

Title: Microphysical Retrieval and Rain Rates of Drizzling Stratocumulus in the Southeast Pacific Ocean

Summary: Stratocumulus clouds play an important role in the radiation budget of the Earth. Climate models do a poor job modeling stratocumulus clouds, underestimating their radiative cooling effect, and resulting in large sea surface temperature discrepancies, the most noticeable of which is located in the southeast tropical Pacific Ocean. An understanding of the microphysical processes within clouds can provide vital insight into how to better model these stratocumulus clouds, resulting in more realistic model simulations. In 2008, the NOAA 94-GHz cloud radar measured reflectivity, Doppler velocity, and Doppler width data aboard the Ronald H. Brown on the VOCALS research cruise in the southeast Pacific Ocean. Profiles with maximum reflectivity at least 100 m below cloud base are identified as drizzling. The drop size distribution, modal radius, liquid water content, and rain rates for the drizzling stratocumulus clouds in this region were computed with the microphysical retrieval of Frisch et al. (1995). Comparing the cloud-base rain rates from the microphysical retrieval to the cloud-base Comstock et al. (2004) Z-R relationship, we find the cloud-base rain rates from the microphysical retrieval span a wider range than the rain rate predicted by the Z-R relationship. Drop size distributions with the same modal radius follow the relationship Z=aR^b with coefficient a (1184).

Simon De Szoeke, Assistant Professor, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences
Michael Graw  Cornell University  Biological Sciences

Title: Microbial community distribution in methane-bearing sediments from the Ulleung Basin

Summary: Microbial communities present in methane-bearing sediments from the Ulleung Basin were examined using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and PhyloChip microarray analyses. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) was used to compare microbial community compositions and to correlate communities with geochemical features of the sediment. Statistical analysis by multi-response permutation procedures (MRPP) revealed that microbial communities in hydrate and non-hydrate layers of methane-bearing sediments are not significantly different, while communities in the methane-poor sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) are significantly different from the methane-bearing sediments below. It is likely that the presence or concentration of methane, hydrogen sulfide, or sulfate in sediments plays a role in determining microbial community distribution in methane-bearing and overlying sediments.

Rick Colwell, Professor, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences
Dylan Lee  University of Florida Geology

Title: A Foray into the Paleomagnetic Properties of Bering Sea Sediments

Summary: Lack of understanding concerning the role of Bering Sea climate variability on global atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns imposes a limit on our understanding of the causes of large-scale climate variability. This little studied region also has significant potential to inform our knowledge of the behavior of the earth’s magnetic field over geological time scales due to the lack of high quality paleomagnetic data in the North Pacific. The paleomagnetic properties of sediments collected from Integrated Ocean Drilling Project (IODP) sites 1343, 1344, and 1345 were evaluated for their potential to refine the paleomagnetic record and further the understanding of environmental processes in the Bering. In addition to information collected by IODP scientists, a u-channel magnetometer was used to measure the NRM and ARM of the upper 7-10 meters of sediment at the sites. Significant magnetic mineral dissolution occurs at sites 1343 and 1345 during the Holocene. It is hypothesized that this results in a reduction and in remanence magnetism during periods of low clastic flux. During periods of high clastic flux, acquisition of magnetic remanence is acquired primarily after the sulfide-methane transition zone due to metastable greigite formation. If this hypothesis is true, then this would create an apparent offset of the age of a sediment’s paleomagnetic record from the age of the sediment. Site 1344 does not display this delayed magnetic acquisition. This would result in an apparent age offset on the order of 5-10kyr between the paleomagnetic records of site 1344 and sites 1343/1345.

Joe Stoner, Associate Professor, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences
Leandra Marshall University of Arizona  Geology

Title: Compositional Characteristics of Plagioclase Crystal Size Distributions (CSDs) from the 2000 B.P. Eruption of El Misti Volcano, Southern Peru

Summary: The most recent significant explosive eruption of El Misti in southern Peru occurred 2000 yr B.P., producing considerable pyroclastic deposits and extensive lahars. Juvenile blocks from the 2000 B.P. eruption reveal the mixing of two magmas: a plagioclase rhyolite and amphibole-plagioclase andesite. To better understand the evolution of these magmas and the exchange of material during mixing, crystal size distributions (CSDs) of plagioclase were determined on five samples across the compositional spectrum to assess and quantify both the mixing relationship and cooling history of each magma. CSDs were determined via high-resolution Al K? x-ray maps to allow for measurement of a large range of crystal sizes. Individual crystals were outlined and processed through Photoshop and ImageJ, crystal aspect ratios of plagioclase were determined through CSDSlice5, and crystal distributions were determined through CSDCorrections. CSDs for each sample are defined by two distinct slopes. CSD slopes for phenocrysts are shallow with low intercepts, reflecting low nucleation rates and low degrees of undercooling. CSD slopes for microphenocrysts and microlites are steep with high intercepts, reflecting both higher nucleation rates and cooling rates than for the phenocrysts. Kinked CSDs are associated with magma mixing, based on the assumption that different magmas have different crystal growth and compositional histories that, upon mixing, are reflected in the CSD curves. In the El Misti case, a test of composition versus crystal size yields no correlation. Both rhyolite and andesite microphenocryst and microlite CSD patterns exhibit almost identical trends, implying concurrent crystallization post-magma interaction during eruption withdrawal.

Frank Tepley, Associate Professor, Geosciences
Kelly Mauser Colorado State University  Physics

Title: Effects of Upwelling on Salinity, Temperature, and Available Potential Energy on the Newport Hydrographic Line as Measured by Cumulative Wind Stress Periods

Summary: Observations of salinity and temperature on the Newport Hydrographic line (NH-line, 44.65oN west of Newport, Oregon) during the upwelling season have not previously been analyzed by cumulative wind stress periods, though wind stress causes upwelling. Additionally, available potential energy evolution during upwelling on the NH-line, or the anomalous upwelling season of 2006 have not been studied in great detail. CTD data were collected by Slocum gliders and Seagliders from 2006-2010 and provide resolution greater than former data collected by research vessels. Findings include salinity and temperature evolving as supported by past findings and literature. Pre-upwelling profiles of temperature and salinity show evidence of upwelling before the official start of the upwelling season. Available potential energy increased with cumulative wind stress, and peaked at either the cumulative wind stress period between 1-2 or 2-3 N/m2 days during upwelling season. The results support the current upwelling model concerning temperature and salinity, however, the pre-upwelling profiles need further work to determine what is causing the differences between years, and wind work needs to be calculated to discover a possible connection with available potential energy and kinetic energy to complete the energy description of the shelf.

Kipp Shearman, Associate Professor, College of Oceanic & Atmospheric Sciences
Cari Rutherford Loyola University-Chicago Physics

Title: The Use of Magnetotelluric Methods to Image the Earth's Interior

Summary: Magnetotellurics (MT) is a geophysical imaging method that can be used to image the Earth's interior through measurement of natural or artificially induced variations in its magnetic and electric fields. Equipment used for MT measurements, such as the Narod Intelligent Magnetotelluric System (NIMS), produces reliable long-period MT data useful for imaging the electrical resistivity structure of the Earth to great depths. By collecting data from one site, we can use one dimensional inversion methods to determine the electrical conductivity structure of the Earth as it varies with depth beneath an OSU field site.

Adam Shultz, Professor, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences
Ed Simmons University of South Carolina Honors College Marine Science & Spanish

Title: Satellite-guided research and prediction of river plume circulation

Summary: Large river plumes, such as the Columbia River plume, have important implications to coastal ocean dynamics because they provide a source of buoyant and nutrient-rich waters, which are distinct from surrounding ocean water in properties such as temperature, salinity, and turbidity. The plume can affect circulation, air-ocean gas exchange, and biological productivity on seasonal and inter-annual temporal scales. The density of the plume, which is dependent on salinity and temperature can affect sea surface height (SSH) thus potentially modifying both currents and eddies over the shelf. For reasons as these, it is important to fully understand river plume dynamics. In this project two dimensional ocean modeling will be used in conjunction with satellite and in-situ data to determine if the river signal can located via satellite derived sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface height (SSH). This knowledge, combined with a better understanding of plume dynamics such as mixing and its interaction with coastal upwelling will ideally provide a more accurate assimilation of data for better modeling and forecasting of the coastal ocean

Alex Kurapov, Associate Professor, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences
Stephanie Smith Texas A&M-Galveston  Marine Biology

Title: Chemical Composition of Organic Matter in Surface Sediments of the Eel River Shelf Depocenter

Summary: Small mountainous river systems (SMRS) export large amounts of sediment from the continents to the ocean, where they typically accumulate in shelf depocenters. These depositional environments have the potential to provide high resolution records of past conditions in both land and coastal ocean because they sequester OM derived from both terrigenous as well as marine sources. In this study we investigate the distribution and composition of OM in surface sediments from shelf depocenter associated with the Eel River, a high-sediment yield SMRS in Northern California. To characterize OM in these samples a combination of elemental (e.g., %OC, C/N), isotopic (e.g., d13C, d15N, D14C) and biomarker (e.g., lignin and non-lignin derived CuO products) analyses were used. Marked contrast in the overall contents of OC and both terrigenous and marine biomarkers were found as a function of depth, reflecting well established cross-shelf trends in grain size and accumulation rates. Source indicators show terrigenous sources make up a major fraction of the OM in surface sediments with peak contributions in the highest accumulation region of the depocenter. The composition of the terrigenous OM in shelf sediments is distinct from the compositions previously determined for the suspended load of the Eel River, including higher lignin yields and a more conifer-like signature. Possible reasons include biologic (e.g., preferential degradation) and physical (e.g., hydrodynamic sorting) alteration of the river suspended load during transport to its ultimate accumulation site. Additionally, it is also likely that the signatures measured in the depocenter reflect the input of material during large floods, which have not been characterized by the river sampling to date. We discuss the implications of these findings from the point of view of reconstructing watershed conditions and processes using depocenter sediment records.

Miguel Goni/Rob Wheatcroft, Professor, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences and Professor, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences
Michelle Stowell  Humboldt State University Oceanography

Title: Lipid content and composition of juvenile English sole Parophrys vetulus in relation to dissolved oxygen and estuarine versus coastal habitats

Summary: The body condition of juvenile English sole, Parophrys vetulus, is determined by the quality of the nursery location where they settle after the pelagic larval stage. Habitat quality is the result of many interacting variables, including dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature. The body condition of juvenile English sole was compared between nearshore coastal and estuarine nursery habitats, and in relation to the seasonal progression of temperature and hypoxic conditions along the central Oregon coast. Absolute total lipid content, determined gravimetrically (dry and wet weight basis), and relative triacylglycerol (TAG) to sterol composition, determined using thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection (Iatroscan), were taken as a measure of body condition for collected juvenile sole. ANOVA and regression analysis of resulting data revealed that changes in total extractable lipids (TEL) and TAG:sterol ratio of juvenile English sole are correlated with seasonal timing. In addition, samples which had not yet fully metamorphosed, collected early in the season from the nearshore coastal habitat, yielded much higher values of TEL than other samples. This data suggests that the value of TEL in juvenile English sole decreases significantly after metamorphosis and settlement, which is common for other flatfish species. In conclusion, a seasonal timing component was found in the relative comparison of data for total lipid content and class composition. This effect may be caused by several factors, such as development of hypoxia, differences in prey community, and progression through life cycle. Through the methodologies developed, these potential mechanisms can be more clearly resolved with further observations.

Lorenzo Ciannelli, Associate Professor, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences